23. The last area that must be addressed as part of this background is that international and other observers have regularly reported widespread irregularities and illegalities in election procedures at the polling station level. Many of these have been of an extremely serious nature, sometimes involving organised ballot-box stuffing with the cooperation or even participation of Election Board presidents and members. Often such incidents also include intimidation and threatened or actual violence by political activists. The most flagrant violations are geographically localised, and have often occurred over and over again in the same locations during different elections. Little if any effective sanction has been applied to the malefactors, and some persons have continued to be appointed to electoral boards even after having being associated with past irregularities.
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