Allowing votes to be cast for individual candidates to allow independents to win seats in a PR system is acceptable in situations of weak and unstable party formations. However, the threshold of 3% specified in Article 87(3) is unreasonably high. Even though the threshold for independent candidates has been reduced from 4 to 3%, it is still so high that the election of an independent candidate is highly unlikely. To take an extreme example, if 33 independents each qualified for a seat, not a single party would pass the 5% threshold in a 101 seat Parliament. A strictly proportional quota for independent candidates would set the threshold for being awarded a seat at 1%. If 10 independents won seats by taking at least 3% of the vote, then a party would need to win 7.1% of the vote for party blocs (that is 5/70ths) to pass the election threshold.
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