Home > 4.1.1 Lower house > ROMANIA- Regulations on The Elections To The Chamber of Deputies and The Senate
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Article 2

Within the meaning of the present title, the terms and expressions below shall mean:

1. electoral poster – appeal, statement, photograph, and other printed material, used in the electoral campaign by the electoral competitors for information and electoral propaganda purposes;

2. elector – any citizen of Romania having the right to vote and having reached the age of 18 until the election day inclusive;

3. repealed;

4. parliamentary elections – elections for the appointment of the members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Romanian Parliament;

5. general elections – any kind of elections having taken place during one single day, throughout the whole country;

6. anticipated elections – elections organised in case of Parliament dissolution;

6 (1), parliamentary political parties – political parties and organisations of citizens belonging to national minorities having their own parliamentary group in both Chambers of the Parliament;

7. electoral alliance – association at national level between political parties and/or political alliances and/or organisations of citizens belonging to national minorities, with a view to participating in the elections for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, registered to the Central Electoral Bureau;

8. political alliance – association between political parties based on a protocol of association registered to the Tribunal of Bucharest, according to Law no. 14/2003 on political parties, with subsequent additions;

9. constituency – administrative-territorial unit – county or municipality of Bucharest – or the constituency for Romanians having the domicile or residence outside the country, where elections are organised and at the level of which mandates are granted, depending on the election results;

10. uninominal college – subunit of a constituency, where a single mandate is granted;

11. electoral bureau – body set up for the good organisation and conduct of the elections at national level, at constituency level, and at polling station level;

12. electoral office – electoral body set up al the level of the districts of the municipality of Bucharest, without having the competence to find the election results at that level, but having the role to contribute to the good organisation and conduct of the elections in the Bucharest Constituency, including by totalising the election result at district level;

13. electoral campaign – the period during which the electoral competitors carry out propaganda activities with a view to convincing the electors to vote for them;

14. candidate – person participating in the elections following the nominations for election forwarded by electoral competitors, or on his/her own behalf, in order to get a mandate of Deputy or Senator, in the conditions when his/her candidature is declared final by the competent electoral body, according to the present title;

15. independent candidate – person participating in the elections in order to get a mandate of Deputy or Senator, and who proposes himself/herself for this, being supported by a certain number of electors, provided that his/her candidature is declared final by the competent electoral body, according to the present title;

16. electoral competitors – political parties, political alliances, electoral alliances, and legally set up organisations of citizens belonging to a national minority represented within the Council of National Minorities, that put forward candidatures, as well as the independent candidates;

17. contestation – way of attack by which any interested party – citizens, candidates, electoral competitors – appeal to the competent electoral bureaux or to the competent courts for the observance of the provisions stipulated as such in the present title;

18. appointment of candidates – procedure by which the political parties, political alliances, electoral alliances, and organisations of citizens belonging to national minorities adopt the decisions regarding the nominations for election;

19. domicile – address declared by a natural person as main home, and which is written in the identity card;

20. residence – address declared by a natural person as secondary home, other than the domicile, and which is mentioned in the identity card;

21. electoral roll – list including all the electors who exercise their right to vote within a polling station;

22. supporters’ list – list including certain personal data and the signatures of electors who support a certain nomination for election with a view to entering it for the elections;

23. internal observer – representative of a legally set up non-governmental organisation, whose main object of activity is to protect democracy and human
rights, accredited by the competent authority to observe the electoral process, according to the present title. Such representative may not be a member of a
political party;

24. international observer – representative of a foreign organisation or institution, accredited by the Permanent Electoral Authority to observe the electoral process;

25. electoral period – interval beginning with the date of making public the election day and ending with the publication in OJ, Part I, of the ballot result. The electoral period shall include the interval between the date of making public the election day and the date of beginning the electoral campaign, the electoral campaign, the actual conduct of the vote, the counting and centralisation of votes, the setting of the election result, the granting of mandates and publication of the election result in OJ, Part I;

26. nomination for election – the act of entering the electoral competition of a person who wishes to compete in the elections in order to gain a mandate, in the conditions in which such person is proposed and supported by an electoral competitor, or he/she proposes himself/herself and is supported by a certain number of electors, according to the provisions of the present title;

27. electoral threshold – the minimum percentage of the separately validly cast votes for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, or the minimum number of uninominal colleges in which it is situated on the first place in the order of the number of validly cast votes, for a political party, a political or electoral alliance, necessary for entering in the process of distribution of mandates;

28. ineligibility – situation, provided for in the Constitution of Romania, republished, in which a person may not be a Deputy or a Senator;

29. national minority – that ethnic which is represented within the Council of National Minorities;

30. electoral fraud – any illegal action taking place before, during or after the close of poll, or during the counting of votes and closing of minutes, and which results in falsifying the electors’ will and creating advantages materialized in extra mandates for an electoral competitor;

31. electoral register – a centralised database including all Romanian citizens, including those having the domicile or residence abroad, who reached the age of 18, with a right to vote;

32. identity card – identity paper, temporary identity paper, identity document; for Romanian citizens with the domicile abroad, the simple passport with the specification regarding the setting of the domicile abroad, for the citizens with the residence abroad, the simple passport or, for European Union member states, the identity card as well, accompanied by any other document issued by the foreign authorities, which proves the residence abroad; for the members of the diplomatic representations, the diplomatic or the service passport; for students of military schools, the military service card;

33. objection – way of attack by which any interested party – citizens, candidates, electoral competitors – requests a public authority or an electoral bureau having issued the objected document to observe the provisions of the present title;

34. by-elections – elections organised in the case of the cancellation of elections in a constituency, as well as in the case where a Deputy or Senator office becomes vacant.