Home > 3.2 Proportional systems > MOLDOVA - Electoral Code 2016 and 2017 Law for Amending and Completing Certain Legislative Acts (Electoral System for the Election of Parliament)
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Article 1

General Definitions

For purposes of this Code, the following general terms have the following meaning:

“Electoral poster” refers to the appeals, statements, photographs and other materials used by candidates for purposes of pre-election campaigning.

“Pre-election Campaigning” refers to the preparation and distribution of information seeking to persuade the voters to vote for an electoral candidate.

“Voter” refers to a citizen of the Republic of Moldova eligible to vote.

“State Registry of Voters” – exclusive integrated informational system of keeping records about voters from the Republic of Moldova, managed in a manner consistent with the State Registry of Population. !e registry is designed to collect, keep, update and analyse data about citizens of the Republic of Moldova, including those located abroad, who have reached the age of 18 years and do not have legal impediments to vote.

“Elections”, unless speci"ed otherwise, refers to the election of members of Parliament, for the position of President of the Republic of Moldova, and the
local public administration bodies, or conducting a referendum. An election also entails the actions of citizens, parties and other socio-political organisations,
electoral blocs, electoral and other state bodies concerning the preparation of voters’ lists, the nomination and registration of candidates, pre-electoral
campaigning, voting and the tabulation of results, as well as other election-related actions under current laws.

“General elections” refers to any type of elections conducted on one day indicated in a decree establishing the date of elections throughout the territory of the republic. 

“Early elections” refers to the elections of the elective body in the event of mandate’s ending before the scheduled end of the term, or the dissolution of an elective body,or a territorial-administrative reorganisation necessitating early elections.

“Electoral bloc” is a voluntary union of two or more parties and/or social-political organisations that was created for joint participation in elections. Electoral blocs are registered with the Central Electoral Commission for parliamentary and presidential elections and local general elections, or registered with the district electoral councils for new local elections.

“Electoral campaign” refers to the time period allowed for activities aimed at persuading the voters to cast their votes for one or another candidate, commencing for each candidate on the day he/she is registered with the Central Electoral Commission or district electoral council, and ending on the day of his/her exclusion from election process or on election day.

“Candidate” refers to an individual who runs for an elective public position on behalf of parties, other socio-political organisations, or electoral blocs.
“Independent candidate” refers to an individual who runs for an elective public position, independently of parties, other socio-political organisations, and/or
electoral blocs. “Centre for Continuous Training on Elections” – specialised unit, created within the Central Electoral Commission, to increase the quali!cations of electoral o"cials and to ensure on-going professional training of elected o"cials as well as of other actors involved in the electoral process.”

“Electoral district” refers to an administrative electoral unit where elections and referendums are organised and conducted.

“Code of Conduct” refers to an agreement between candidates and representatives of mass-media regarding the covering the electoral campaign in a way that excludes harming the dignity and reputation of candidates.

“Electoral candidate” refers: - to independent candidates, registered with the Central Electoral Commission, as well as to parties, other socio-political organisations and electoral blocs whose lists of candidates have been registered with the Central Electoral Commission - in parliamentary elections;

– to candidates for the positions of the President of the Republic of Moldova, registered with the Central Electoral Commission – in presidential elections;
- to parties, other socio-political organisations, electoral blocs, and individuals running for the position of mayor or councillor, registered by authorized district
electoral councils - in local elections.

“Complaint” refers to a request to cancel or revise an act, a decision, or an action. “Central Electoral Commission” refers to independent state body, established for carrying out electoral policies for the purpose of good conduct of elections, monitoring and control of enforcement of legal provisions on !nancing of political parties and electoral campaigns.

“Nomination of Candidates” refers to a procedure of adoption of decisions regarding candidatures for elective positions by parties and other socio-political
organisations and electoral blocs. Candidate-selection decisions occur during sessions of governing bodies of the parties and other social-political organisations or electoral blocs in accordance with their statutes. Candidate-selection decisions occur a"er the announcement of the date of elections.

“Domicile” refers to a person’s permanent place of residence, con!rmed in their Identity Card.

“Statement of residence” refers to a procedure through which citizens with a right to vote declare their place of residence on the day of election.

“Electoral right” refers to a citizen’s constitutional right to elect, to be elected, and to vote on the most important issues of the state and the society and/or issues of special local interest. 

“Electoral education” – an educational and non-political activity, carried out by civil society organisations and groups, educational institutions, mass-media and other interested parties, which aims to increase citizen knowledge about political and electoral processes, and to allow them to cast their votes freely and in an informed manner. Electoral education may be freely conducted by interested actors through organising seminars, trainings, round-tables, informational campaigns, public electoral debates and other education activities which are not regulated by the Central Electoral Commission or other authorities.

“Financing of electoral campaigns” – direct and/or indirect !nancing, as well offering by the state, individuals and/or legal entities of other material support to
the electoral contestant. 

“Financing of political parties” – direct and/or indirect fnancing, (offering), allocating or transmitting to political parties’ bene!t of !nancial means, material
means, or other types of means, by the state, individuals and/or legal entities.

“Electoral official” – an individual who acts or who acted under the current Code as a member of the district electoral council or the precinct electoral bureau.

“Initiative group” – group established out of citizens with the right to vote and registered under the conditions of the present Code by the Central Electoral Commission for collecting signatures to support a candidate for an elective position or for the purpose of initiating a referendum.

“List of candidates” refers to the list of candidates nominated by parties, other socio-political organisations, and/or electoral blocs for participation in elections. 

“Voters’ lists” refers to the lists of citizens with the right to vote who have a domicile and/or are residing within a precinct. “Additional voters’ list” – a voters’ list drawn up by the electoral body, where persons who were not entered in the main voters’ lists are included.

“Signatures collecting lists” refers to the list of collected voters’ signatures, which indicate support for a candidate or which support a referendum.

“Locality” refers to a territorial-administrative unit, organised according to current laws (rayon or regional, municipality, town, town sector, village/commune and territorial-administrative unit with a special status).

“The minimum of reserved places for electoral posters” refers to specially arranged places reserved for electoral posters, placed in one locality. Electoral
posters are placed uniformly within the radius of the entire locality. The minimum area provided for a candidate on a poster is 1 square meter. the space for electoral publicity allocated to all candidates should be equal.

“National observers” – representatives of qualifeed non-governmental associations from the Republic of Moldova or representatives of candidates as accredited by the electoral bodies under this Code.

“International observers” – representatives of international organisations, of governments of other states and of non-governmental organisations from aboard, as well as international experts in the electoral field, as accredited by the Central Electoral Commission.

“Protocol Offce of International Observers” – a body created within the Central Electoral Commission during the electoral period to render necessary assistance to international observers to facilitate the professional observation of elections.

“Electoral bodies” refers to bodies that organise the election of members of Parliament, for the position of President of the Republic of Moldova, the local
public administration authorities, and referendums. 

“Socio-political organisations” refers to parties, fronts/organizations, leagues, and popular political movements that are registered according to the Law regulating parties and other socio-political organisations.

“Parties” refers to voluntary citizens’ associations that are organised and registered according to the Law regulating parties and other socio-political organisations.

“Electoral period” refers to the time period commencing on the day when the date of elections is offcially announced and ending on the day when the final election results are con"rmed by the authorized bodies.

“Persons authorised to observe the electoral procedures” refers to representatives and observers of the electoral process at election administration locations.
Observers are accredited by the district electoral councils or by the Central Electoral Commission. Representatives of mass media are also authorised to observe the electoral procedures.

Reports on financing of electoral campaigns – reports of the electoral contestant regarding the flow of financial means, including the accumulated financial means, sources of their provenience and expenditures made during the electoral campaign.

“Referendum” refers to the vote of the people with respect to major issues of the state and the society as a whole, as well as to citizens’ consultation on local issues of special interest.

“Register of Electoral Offcials” – a system of registration (personal database) at the national level of electoral o!cials, drawn up by Central Electoral Commission, which includes information on the o!cials’ name/surname, year of birth, profession, job, employer, contact telephone number, residence, the person/body who appointed them, and, when they participate in elections, the date of elections and their position within the electoral bodies.

“Residence” refers to a person’s temporary place of residence, confirmed in their ID

“Revocation” refers to withdrawal of the mandate of an individual holding an elective public position by a court’s decision and/or by local referendum (in
situations involving a mayor).