However, a certain number of points should be revised. In various articles in this chapter, e.g. Article 50.4, reference is made to the withdrawal of candidates. As a general principle, withdrawal of candidates should not be allowed, because it opens the door to manipulation by candidates and parties, and corruption. To avoid manipulative candidate registration followed by attempts to withdraw, or public proclamations by a registered candidate that s/he would like supporters to vote for another candidate or party, the Electoral Commission should have the power to impose a penalty, which could take one of two forms or both:
(a) Impounding any unspent funds in the candidate's election account at the bank AND a fine equal to the amount of money spent from the fund.
(b) Disqualification from standing as a candidate at a subsequent election, or only being allowed to stand if meeting more onerous standards, e.g. double the number of nominating signatures, a cash deposit, etc.
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The VOTA database was created within the framework of the joint programme between the Venice Commission and the European Commission "Democracy through free and fair elections". It is managed jointly by the Secretariat of the Venice Commission and by the Mexican Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (TEPJF).