One detail, however, is quite problematic from a normative point of view: Article 86.2 prescribes that the majority requirement (50%+1) is to be based on the number of votes cast and not, as commonly, on the valid votes. In other words, in this system invalid votes systematically count against the strongest candidate. In non-competitive contexts this does not pose a problem since in such “elections without choice” invalid votes may reasonably be considered a kind of “negative vote”. In multi-candidate races, on the contrary, invalid votes cannot be interpreted as clear political choice, thus they should not be taken into account. Therefore, the relevant formulations should be altered from “votes cast” to “valid votes” (see also “Elections for Parliament”).
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The VOTA database was created within the framework of the joint programme between the Venice Commission and the European Commission "Democracy through free and fair elections". It is managed jointly by the Secretariat of the Venice Commission and by the Mexican Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (TEPJF).